Wednesday, November 25, 2009

Eid al-Adha

to all my beloved frenz, I'm wishing you ' Selamat Hari Raya Aidil Adha 1430H '

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Eid al-Adha (Arabic: عيد الأضحى‘Īdu l-’Aḍḥā) "Festival of Sacrifice" or "Greater Eid" is a holiday celebrated by Muslims (including the Druze) worldwide to commemorate the willingness of Ibrahim to sacrifice his son Ismael as an act of obedience to God.

Eid al-Adha is the latter of two Eid festivals celebrated by Muslims, whose basis comes from the Quran.[1] Like Eid al-Fitr, Eid al-Adha begins with a short prayer followed by a sermon (khuṭba).

Eid al-Adha annually falls on the 10th day of the month of Dhul Hijja (ذو الحجة) of the lunar Islamic calendar. The festivities last for three days or more depending on the country. Eid al-Adha occurs the day after the pilgrims conducting Hajj, the annual pilgrimage to Mecca in Saudi Arabia by Muslims worldwide, descend from Mount Arafat. It happens to be approximately 70 days after the end of the month of Ramadan.

Other names

The Arabic term "Festival of Sacrifice", ‘Īd ul-’Aḍḥā was borrowed as a unit into Indic languages such as Hindi, Urdu, Gujarati and Bengali andAustronesian languages such as Malay and Indonesian.

Another Arabic word for "sacrifice", (Arabic: قربانQurbān), was lent into Dari Persian - Afghanistan and Iranian dialect of Persian as Eyde Ghorbân (Persian: عید قربان), into Tajik Persian as Иди Қурбон Idi Qurbon, into Kazakh as Құрбан айт (Qurban ayt), into Uyghur as Qurban Heyit, and also into various Indic languages. Other languages combined the Arabic word qurbān with local terms for "festival", as in Kurdish(Cejna Qurbanê [2]), Pashto (Kurbaneyy Akhtar), Chinese (Chinese: 古尔邦节 Gúěrbāng Jié), Malay and Indonesian (Hari Raya Korban,Qurbani), and Turkish (Turkish: Kurban Bayramı). The Turkish term was then later borrowed into languages such as Azeri (Qurban Bayramı),Tatar (Qorban Bäyräme), Bosnian, (Kurban Bajram), Serbian (Курбан бајрам), Russian (Курбан байрам).

Another Arabic name, ‘Īd ul-Kabīr (Arabic: عيد الكبير`Īd al-Kabīr), meaning "Greater Eid/Festival", is used in Yemen, Syria, and North Africa(Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, and Egypt). The term was borrowed directly into French as Aïd el-Kebir. Translations of "Big Eid" or "Greater Eid" are used in Pashto لوی اختر Loy Akhtar, Kashmiri Baed Eid, Hindi and Urdu Baṛā Īd, Malayalam Bali Perunnal, and Tamil Peru Nāl.

Another name refers to the fact that the holiday occurs after the culmination of the Hajj (حج), or pilgrimage to Mecca (Makka). Such names are used in Malay and Indonesian (Hari Raya Haji "Hajj celebration day", Lebaran Haji), and in Tamil Hajji Peru Nāl.

In Urdu-speaking areas, the festival is also called بقرعید Baqra Īd or Baqrī Īd, stemming either from the Arabic baqarah "heifer" or the Urdu word baqrī for "goat", as cows and goats are among the traditionally-sacrificed animals. That term was also borrowed into other languages, such as Tamil Bakr Eid Peru Nāl.

Other local names include 宰牲节 Zǎishēng Jié ("Slaughter-livestock Festival") in Chinese, Tfaska Tamoqqart in the Berber language ofJerba, Tabaski or Tobaski in West African languages , [3]Babbar Sallah in Nigerian languages, and ciida gawraca in Somali.

Eid-al-Adha has other popular names across the Muslim world. The name is often simply translated into the local language, such as EnglishFestival of Sacrifice, German Opferfest, Dutch Offerfeest, and Hungarian Áldozati ünnep.


Four thousand years ago, the valley of Mecca was a dry and uninhabited place. According to Islamic history, the Prophet Ibrahim (Abraham) was instructed to bring Hajar (Hajira) and their child Ismael to Arabia from the land of Israel - Canaan - by God's command, as his childless wife Sarah, well beyond child bearing years, had become jealous that Hagar had bore a Abraham a son.

As Ibrahim made ready to return to the land of Canaan, Hajar asked him, "Who ordered you to leave us here"? When Ibrahim replied: "God", Hajar said, "then God will not forget us; you can go". Although Ibrahim had left a large quantity of food and water with Hajar and Ismael, the supplies quickly ran out and within a few days the two were suffering from hunger and dehydration.

According to the story, a desparate Hajar ran up and down between two hills called Safa and Marwa seven times, trying to find water. Finally she collapsed beside her baby Ismael and prayed to God for deliverance. Ismael struck his foot on the ground, and this caused a spring of water to gush forth from the earth. Other accounts have the angel Jibral (Gabriel) striking the earth and starting a spring to flow. With this secure water supply, they were not only able to provide for their own needs, but were also able to trade water with passing nomads for food and supplies. When the Prophet Ibrahim returned from Canaan to check on his family, he was amazed to see them running a profitable well.

The Prophet Ibrahim was told by God to build a shrine dedicated to him adjacent to Hajar's well (the Zamzam Well). Ibrahim and Ismaelconstructed a small stone structure–-the Kaaba--which was to be the gathering place for all who wished to strengthen their faith in God. As the years passed, Ismael was blessed with Prophethood and he gave the nomads of the desert his message of surrender to God. After many centuries, Mecca became a thriving city and a major center for trade, thanks to its reliable water source, the well of Zamzam.

[edit]The Hijrah

No longer safe in Mecca, the Prophet Muhammad, in the year 628 traveled to Medina (lit. the city) with 1400 of his followers. This is considered as the first 'pilgrimage' in Islam, seeking to re-establish the religious traditions of the Prophet Ibrahim, as he believed they were originally practiced. [4]

[edit]The Takbir and other Rituals

The Takbir is recited from the dawn of the tenth of Dhu al-Hijjah to the thirteenth of it. The Takbir consists of:

Allaahu akbar, Allaahu akbar, Allaahu akbarالله أكبر الله أكبر الله أكبر
laa ilaaha illAllaahلا إله إلا الله
Allaahu akbar, Allaahu akbarالله أكبر الله أكبر
wa li-illaahil-hamdولله الحمد
Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest,
There is no deity but Allah
Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest
and to Allah goes all praise


Allaahu akbar, Allaahu akbarالله أكبر الله أكبر
laa ilaaha illAllaahلا إله إلا الله
wAllaahu akbar, Allaahu akbarوالله أكبر الله أكبر
wa li-illaahil-hamdولله الحمد
alhamdulillaah `alaa maa hadaanaa, wa lahul-shukru `ala maa awlaanaaالحمدلله على ما هدانا و له الشكر على ما اولانا
Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest,
There is no deity but Allah
and Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest
and to Allah goes all praise, (We) sing the praises of Allah because He has shown us the Right Path. (We) gratefully thank Him because He takes care of us and looks after our interests.[5]


Allaahu akbar, Allaahu akbar, Allaahu akbarالله أكبر الله أكبر الله أكبر
laa ilaaha illAllaahلا إله إلا الله
Allaahu akbar, Allaahu akbarالله أكبر الله أكبر
wa li-illaahil-hamdولله الحمد
Allaahu akbar kabeera wal hamdu lillahi katheera wa sobhana allahi bokratan wa aseelaالله أكبر كبيرا والحمد لله كثيرا وسبحان الله بكرة وأصيلا
laa ilaaha illAllaahلا إله إلا الله
Wahdah sadaqa wa'dah wa nasara abdah wa a'aza jondahu wa hazama al-ahzaba wahdahوحده صدق وعده ونصر عبده وأعز جنده وهزم الأحزاب وحده
laa ilaaha illAllaahلا إله إلا الله
wala na'bodu illa iyah mokhliseen lahu aldeena wa law kariha al kafiroonولا نعبد إلا إياه مخلصين له الدين ولو كره الكافرون
allahomma salli ala sayyidina mohammad wa ala sayyidina mohammad wa ala aal sayyidina mohammad wa ala ashabi sayyidina mohammad wa ala ansari sayyidina mohammad wa ala azwaji sayyidina mohammad wa ala zoriyyati sayyidina mohammadin wa sallim taslimann katheeraاللهم صل على سيدنا محمد وعلى آل سيدنا محمد وعلى أصحاب سيدنا محمد وعلى أنصار سيدنا محمد وعلى أزواج سيدنا محمد وعلى ذرية سيدنا محمد وسلم تسليما كثيرا
Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest,
There is no deity but Allah
Allah is the Greatest, Allah is the Greatest
and to Allah goes all praise
Allah is the Greatest, all Praise is due to Him, And Glory to Allah, eventide and in the morning
There is no god, but Allah the Unique, He has fulfilled His Promise, and made Victorious His servant, and made Mighty His soldiers and defeated the confederates
There is no deity but Allah
He alone we worship, with sincere and exclusive devotion, even though the infidels hate it
O Allah, have Mercy on our Prophet Muhammad, and on the family of our Prophet Muhammad, and on the companions of our Prophet Muhammad, and on the helpers of our Prophet Muhammad, and on the wives of our Prophet Muhammad, and on the offspring of our Prophet Muhammad, and Bestow upon them much peace

Done by Nasir Muhammad Gamba

[edit]Traditions and practices

Men, women, and children are expected to dress in their finest clothing to perform Eid prayer (ṣalātu l-`Īdi) in a large congregation in an open area or mosque. Muslims who can afford to do so sacrifice their best domestic animals (usually sheep, but also camels, cows and goats) as a symbol of Ibrahim's sacrifice. The sacrificed animals, called uḍiyyah (Arabic: أضحية‎, also known as "al-qurbāni"), have to meet certain age and quality standards or else the animal is considered an unacceptable sacrifice. Generally, these must be at least a year old.

The regular charitable practices of the Muslim community are demonstrated during Eid al-Adha by the concerted effort to see that no impoverished person is left without sacrificial food during these days.

Distributing meat among people is considered an essential part of the festival during this period, as well as chanting Takbir out loud before the Eid prayer on the first day and after prayers through out the four days of Eid. (See Takbir in "Traditions and practices" of Eid el-Fitr.) In some countries families that do not own livestock can make a contribution to a charity that will provide meat to those who are in need.

[edit]Eid al-Adha in the Gregorian calendar

While Eid al-Adha is always on the same day of the Islamic calendar, the date on the Gregorian calendar varies from year to year since the Islamic calendar is a lunar calendar and the Gregorian calendar is a solar calendar. The lunar calendar is approximately eleven days shorter than the solar calendar. Each year, Eid al-Adha (like other Islamic holidays) falls on one of two different Gregorian dates in different parts of the world, due to the fact that the boundary of crescent visibility is different from the International date line.

The following list shows the official dates of Eid al-Adha for Saudi Arabia as announced by the Supreme Judicial Council. Future dates are calculated according to the Umm al-Qura calendar of Saudi Arabia.[6] The three days after the listed date are also part of the festival. The time before the listed date the pilgrims visit the Mount Arafat and descend from it after sunrise of the listed day. Future dates of Eid al-Adha might face correction 10 days before the festivity, in case of deviant lunar sighting in Saudi Arabia for the start of the month Dhul Hijja.

  • 1400 (Islamic Calendar): October 17, 1980
  • 1401 (Islamic Calendar): October 6, 1981
  • 1402 (Islamic Calendar): September 26, 1982
  • 1403 (Islamic Calendar): September 15, 1983
  • 1404 (Islamic Calendar): September 4, 1984
  • 1405 (Islamic Calendar): August 24, 1985
  • 1406 (Islamic Calendar): August 14, 1986
  • 1407 (Islamic Calendar): August 3, 1987
  • 1408 (Islamic Calendar): July 23, 1988
  • 1409 (Islamic Calendar): July 12, 1989
  • 1410 (Islamic Calendar): July 2, 1990
  • 1411 (Islamic Calendar): June 21, 1991
  • 1412 (Islamic Calendar): June 10, 1992
  • 1413 (Islamic Calendar): May 30, 1993
  • 1414 (Islamic Calendar): May 20, 1994
  • 1415 (Islamic Calendar): May 9, 1995
  • 1416 (Islamic Calendar): April 28, 1996
  • 1417 (Islamic Calendar): April 17, 1997
  • 1418 (Islamic Calendar): April 7, 1998
  • 1419 (Islamic Calendar): March 27, 1999
  • 1420 (Islamic Calendar): March 16, 2000
  • 1421 (Islamic Calendar): March 5, 2001
  • 1422 (Islamic Calendar): February 22, 2002
  • 1423 (Islamic Calendar): February 11, 2003
  • 1424 (Islamic Calendar): February 1, 2004
  • 1425 (Islamic Calendar): January 20, 2005 announced (calculated date: January 21, 2005)
  • 1426 (Islamic Calendar): January 10, 2006 announced (calculated date: same)
  • 1427 (Islamic Calendar): December 30, 2006 announced (calculated date: December 31, 2006)
  • 1428 (Islamic Calendar): December 19, 2007 announced (calculated date: December 20, 2007)
  • 1429 (Islamic Calendar): December 8, 2008 announced (calculated date: same)
  • 1430 (Islamic Calendar): November 27, 2009 announced (calculated date: same)
  • 1431 (Islamic Calendar): November 16, 2010 (calculated)
  • 1432 (Islamic Calendar): November 6, 2011 (calculated)
  • 1433 (Islamic Calendar): October 26, 2012 (calculated)
  • 1434 (Islamic Calendar): October 15, 2013 (calculated)
  • 1435 (Islamic Calendar): October 4, 2014 (calculated)
  • 1436 (Islamic Calendar): September 23, 2015 (calculated)
  • 1437 (Islamic Calendar): September 11, 2016 (calculated)
  • 1438 (Islamic Calendar): September 1, 2017 (calculated)
  • 1439 (Islamic Calendar): August 21, 2018 (calculated)
  • 1440 (Islamic Calendar): August 11, 2019 (calculated)
  • 1441 (Islamic Calendar): July 31, 2020 (calculated)
  • 1442 (Islamic Calendar): July 23, 2021 (calculated)

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